The Making of a Scientist class 10 questions answers

 The Making of a Scientist class 10 questions answers

The Making of a Scientist class 10 English question answer 

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04) The Making of a Scientist (Robert W. Peterson)

Richard's Success at Young Age

The article of Richard H Ebright and his friend was published in the scientific journal 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Science'. He was only twenty-two years old at that time. It was the first time that the research work of college students was published. It was a rare honour for Richard.

Richard's Childhood

Richard was the only child of his parents. They lived in Pennsylvania, USA. As there was no scope for playing football or baseball so he developed the habit of collecting things such as rocks, fossils and coins. He also took interest in the science of astronomy and also loved to gaze at the stars all night.

Richard's Mother: His True Companion

Richard lost his father when he was in third grade so his mother was his only, companion. His mother encouraged his interest in learning. She took him on trips and bought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras, mounting materials and many other equipments. She helped him in learning at young age and he earned top grades in his school.

Richard Reads 'The Travels of Monarch X'Book

Richard was interested in butterflies since his early childhood. When he was in second grade, he had collected 25 species of butterflies found around his hometown. His interest would have ended but his mother gift him the book 'The Travels of Monarch X. This book described about the migrating patterns of monarch butterflies to central America. It opened up a new world of science for Richard.

Tagging Butterflies for Research At the end of the book, Richard found an invitation for studying the migration of butterflies. Readers were told to tag butterflies for research by Dr. Frederick A Urquhart of University of Toronto, Canada.

Soon Richard started tagging monarch butterflies. Thebutterfly collecting season in his area lasted for six weeks in late summer. It was difficult to chase them one by one. Richard took a decision to raise a stock of butterflies. He would catch a female monarch and take her eggs. He

studied their development from egg to caterpillar to pupa and to adult butterfly. Then, he would tag their wings and free them.However, soon he started loosing interest in butterflies.

Richard's Entry in the County Science Fair

Richard was in seventh grade when he realised, what true science is. He displayed his slides of frogs at the county science fair, but did not win any award. He realised the winners in the fair had tried to do real experiments. He decided that next year, he would also do a real experiment.

Richard's Eighth Grade Project For his next project, he wrote to Dr. Urquhart for ideas and recieved many suggestions. Soon, Richard achieved his first success.

In Richard's eighth grade project, he had tried to find the cause of a viral disease that, kills monarch caterpillars. Richard thought that the disease might be carried by a beetle. He tried raising caterpillars in presence of beetles but he failed. However, he won a prize in the county fair.

Richard's Next Project on Viceroy Butterflies

Richard's next project was testing the theory that viceroy butterflies copy monarch butterflies. Viceroys butterflies do so to protect themselves from birds as birds don't like to eat monarchs while they like to eat Viceroys.

He also found that a bird starling would only eat monarch butterflies and not ordinary bird food. This project was placed first in the zoology division and third in overall county science fair.

Richard's Discovery of a Hormone

In his second year of high school, Richard discovered an unknown hormone which also led to his new theory on the life of cells. By this project, his purpose was to know the reason behind the twelve tiny gold spots on monarch's pupa.

Richard along with another science student built a device which showed that the spots were producing a hormone necessary for the butterfly's full development. This project won Richard First place in county science fair. He also got entry into the International Science and Engineering Fair.

There he won third place for zoology and also got a chance to work at the entomology laboratory of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research during summer.

Richard Continues his Research on

Monarch Pupa When Richard was a high school junior, he continued his advanced research on the monarch's pupa. Later in his senior year, he grew cells from monarch's wing in a culture.

He showed that the cells would develop into normal butterfly wings scales only when they were fed by the hormones produced by the gold spots.

Richard's Study of Cell and DNA

Richard joined Harvard University after summer. In his junior years, he got the idea of his new theory about cell life while looking at the X-ray photos of chemical structure of a hormone. He believed that his study could tell how the cell can read the blueprint of its DNA (It is the substance in the nucleus of a cell that controls heredity).

Richard and his college room-mate James R. Wong worked all night constructing the plastic models of molecules. Later,they together wrote a paper explaining their theory.

Highest Honours in Harvard

Richard graduated with second position in a class of 1510 students. He became a graduate student researcher. He started experimenting to prove his new theory. His theory may create new ways to prevent some types of cancer and other diseases.

Richard: An all Rounder

Richard was not just a scientist. He was an all rounder. He was a champion debator and a public speaker. He was also a good canoeist and an outdoor person. He was also a great photographer.

In his high school, he was a part of the Debating and the Model United Nations Clubs. There, he found Richard A Weiherer, his social studies professor whom he admired a lot.

Richard: A True Scientist

Mr. Weiherer (Ebright's Teacher) praised Richard for his hard work. He also praised Richard's healthy competitiveness which was just for the sake of doing his best.

Richard had all the qualities that made him a true scientist.He had a first rate mind, curiosity and a will to win for all the right reasons.

कम उम्र में रिचर्ड की सफलता

रिचर्ड एच इब्राइट और उनके दोस्त का लेख वैज्ञानिक पत्रिका 'प्रोसिडिंग्स ऑफ द नेशनल एकेडमी ऑफ साइंस' में प्रकाशित हुआ था। वह उस समय केवल बाईस वर्ष का था। यह पहली बार था जब कॉलेज के छात्रों का शोध कार्य प्रकाशित हुआ था। रिचर्ड के लिए यह एक दुर्लभ सम्मान था।

रिचर्ड का बचपन

रिचर्ड अपने माता-पिता की इकलौती सन्तान थे। वे अमेरिका के पेंसिलवेनिया में रहते थे। वहाँ फुटबॉल या बेसबॉल खेलने की कोई गुंजाइश नहीं थी इसलिए उन्होंने चट्टानों, जीवाश्म और सिक्कों जैसी चीजो को एकत्रित करने की आदत विकसित की। उन्होंने खगोल विज्ञान में भी रुचि ली और वे रातभर तारों को देखना भी पसन्द करते थे।

रिचर्ड की माँ उसकी सच्ची साथी

वह रिचर्ड ने अपने पिता को खो दिया जब वह तीसरी कक्षा में थे इसलिए उनकी माँ ही उनकी एकमात्र साथी थी। उनकी मां ने सीखने में उनकी रुचि को प्रोत्साहित किया। उसे यात्राओं पर ले गई और उसके लिए दूरबीन, सुक्ष्मदर्शी, कैमरा, पर्वतारोहण सम्बन्ध सामान और कई अन्य उपकरण खरीदें। उसने (रिचर्ड की माँ) कम उम्र में सीखने में उसकी सहायता की और उसने अपने स्कूल में शीर्ष ग्रेड अर्जित किए।

रिचर्ड 'द ट्रेवल्स ऑफ मोनार्थ X' पुस्तक पढ़ना

रिचर्ड को बचपन से ही तितलियों में अत्यन्त रुचि थी। जब वह दूसरी कक्षा में उसने अपने गृहनगर के आस-पास पाई जाने वाली तितलियों की 25 प्रजातियों को एकत्रित किया था। उसकी रुचि समाप्त हो जाती लेकिन उसकी माँ ने उसे 'द ट्रैवल्स ऑफ मोनार्च X पुस्तक भेंट की। यह किताब बताती थी कि किस प्रकार मोनाच तितालियाँ मध्य अमेरिका की ओर पलायन करती है। इसने रिचर्ड के लिए विज्ञान जगत के नए द्वार खोल दिए। था,

अनुसन्धान के लिए तितलियों को टैग करना

पुस्तक के अन्त में, रिचर्ड को तितलियों के प्रवास का अध्ययन करने का निमन्त्रण मिला। कनाडा के टोस्टो विश्वविद्यालय के डॉ. फ्रेडरिक ए उरकुहार्ट द्वारा पाठकों को शोध के लिए तितलियों को टैग करने के लिए कहा गया था।

जल्द ही रिचर्ड ने मोनार्च तितलियों को टैग करना शुरू कर दिया। अपने क्षेत्र में तितली एकत्रित करने का मौसम गर्मियों में छह सप्ताह तक रहता है। एक-एक करके उनका पीछा करना मुश्किल था। रिचर्ड ने तितलियों का भण्डार बढ़ाने का निर्णय लिया। वह एक मादा मोनार्च को पकड़ लेता है और उसके अण्डे लेता है। उसने अण्डे से कैटरपिलर, कैटरपिलर से प्यूपा और वयस्क तितली तक उनके विकास का अध्ययन किया। फिर, वह उनके पंखों पर टैग लगाता और उन्हें मुक्त कर देता। हालाँकि, जल्द ही उनकी तितलियों में रुचि कम होने लगी। काउंटी विज्ञान मेले में रिचर्ड की एंट्री रिचर्ड सातवीं कक्षा में थे जब उन्हें अहसास हुआ कि सच्चा विज्ञान क्या है। उसने देश विज्ञान मेले में मेंढ़कों की अपनी स्लाइड प्रदर्शित की, लेकिन कोई पुरस्कार नहीं जीता। उसने महसूस किया कि मेले में विजेताओं ने वास्तविक प्रयोग करने की कोशिश की थी।

रिचर्ड का आठवीं कक्षा का प्रोजेक्ट

अपने अगले प्रोजेक्ट के लिए, उसने डॉ. उरकुहार्ट के विचारों को लिखा और अनेक सुझाव प्राप्त किए। जल्द ही रिचर्ड ने अपनी पहली सफलता हासिल की।

रिचर्ड की आठवीं कक्षा के प्रोजेक्ट में, एक वायरल बीमारी का कारण खोजने की कोशिश की थी जो मोनार्च कैटरपिलर को मार देती है। सोचा यह बीमारी एक भौरों से फैलती है। उसने लार्वाओं को भौरों के साथ पालने की कोशिश की। लेकिन वह असफल रहा। हालांकि, उसने अपने देश के मेले में एक पुरस्कार जीता।

वायसराय तितलियों पर रिचर्ड का अगला प्रोजेक्ट

रिचर्ड का अगला प्रोजेक्ट इस सिद्धान्त का परीक्षण कर रहे थे कि वायसराय तितलियाँ मोनार्थ तितलियों की नकल करती है।

वायसराय तितलियाँ पक्षियों से अपनी रक्षा करने के लिए ऐसा करती हैं क्योंकि पक्षी मोनार्च को खाना पसन्द नहीं करते जबकि वे वायसराय को खाना पसन्द करते हैं। उन्होंने यह भी पाया कि एक भूखा पक्षी केवल मोनाचं तितलियों को ही खाएगा न कि साधारण पक्षी भोजन इस प्रोजेक्ट को जूलॉजी डिवीजन में प्रथम और समग्र विज्ञान में तीसरा स्थान दिया गया।

रिचर्ड की एक हार्मोन की खोज

हाई स्कूल के अपने दूसरे वर्ष में, रिचर्ड ने एक अज्ञात हार्मोन की खोज की जिसने कोशिकाओं के जीवन पर उनके नए सिद्धान्त को भी जन्म दिया। इस परियोजना के द्वारा, उनका उद्देश्य मोनार्च के प्यूपा पर सोने के बारह छोटे धब्बों के पीछे का कारण जानना था।

रिचर्ड ने एक अन्य विज्ञान छात्र के साथ मिलकर एक उपकरण बनाया जिससे पता चला कि धब्बे तितली के पूर्ण विकास के लिए आवश्यक हार्मोन का उत्पादन कर रहे थे। इस परियोजना ने रिचर्ड को देश विज्ञान मेले में पहला स्थान दिलाया।

उसे अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय विज्ञान और इंजीनियरिंग मेले में भी प्रवेश मिला। वहाँ उसने जंतु विज्ञान के लिए तीसरा स्थान प्राप्त किया और गर्मियों के दौरान वाल्टर रीड आर्मी इंस्टीट्यूड ऑफ रिसर्च की कीट विज्ञान प्रयोगशाला में काम करने का भी मौका मिला।

रिचर्ड ने मोनार्च प्यूपा पर अपना शोध जारी रखा है

जब रिचर्ड जूनियर स्कूल में थे, तब उन्होंने मोनार्च के प्यूपा पर अपना उन्नत शोध जारी रखा। बाद में अपने द्वितीय वर्ष में, उन्होंने संवर्द्धन द्वारा मोनाचं तितलियों के पंखों से ऊतकों को विकसित किया। उसने दिखाया कि कोशिकाओं को यदि सुनहरे धब्बों से पोषण मिलेगा तभी वह विभाजित और साधारण तितली के पंखों के रूप में विकसित होंगे।

रिचर्ड का कोशिका और डी एन ए का अध्ययन

गर्मियों के बाद रिचर्ड हार्वर्ड विश्वविद्यालय में शामिल हो गए। अपने जूनियर वर्षों में, जब वे एक हार्मोन की रासायनिक संरचना की एक्स-रे की तस्वीरों को देख रहे थे तब उन्हें कोशिकाओं के जीवन के बारे में अपने नए सिद्धान्त का विचार आया।

उनका मानना था कि उनका अध्ययन बता सकता है कि कोशिका अपने डी एन ए - के ब्लूप्रिण्ट को कैसे पढ़ सकता है (डी.एन.ए. एक कोशिका के केन्द्र में स्थित तत्त्व है जो आनुवांशिकता को नियन्त्रित करता है)।

रिचर्ड और उनके कॉलेज रूम के साथी जेन्स आर. वोंग ने पूरी रात तस्वीरें और अणुओं के प्लास्टिक मॉडल बनाते रहें। बाद में, उन्होंने साथ में सिद्वान्त की व्याख्या के लिए लेख लिखा।

हावर्ड में सर्वोच्च सम्मान

रिचर्ड ने 1510 छात्रों की कक्षा में दूसरे स्थान के साथ स्नातक किया। वह एक स्नातक छात्र शोधकर्ता बन गए। उन्होंने अपने नए सिद्धान्त को साबित करने के लिए प्रयोग करने प्रारम्भ कर दिए। उनका सिद्धान्त कुछ प्रकार के कैंसर और अन्य बीमारियों की रोकथाम के लिए नए सुझावों के मार्ग प्रशस्त कर सकता है।

रिचर्ड : एक ऑल राउण्डर

रिचर्ड केवल एक वैज्ञानिक नहीं थे। वे ऑल राउण्डर थे। वह एक कुशल विवादकर्ता और एक लोकवक्ता थे। वह एक अच्छे कैनोइस्ट और घर से बाहर विचरण करने वाले व्यक्ति भी थे। वह एक कुशल फोटोग्राफर भी थे।

अपने हाई स्कूल में, वह डिबेटिंग और मॉडल संयुक्त राष्ट्र क्लबों का हिस्सा थे। वहाँ, उन्होंने रिचर्ड ए. वेहरर, अपने सामाजिक अध्ययन के प्रोफेसर को पाया, जिनकी उन्होंने बहुत प्रशंसा की।

रिचर्ड – एक सच्चे वैज्ञानिक

मिस्टर वेहरर (ईब्राइट के शिक्षक) ने रिचर्ड की कड़ी मेहनत के लिए प्रशंसा की। उन्होंने रिचर्ड की प्रतिस्पर्द्धा की भी प्रशंसा की जो केवल अपना सर्वश्रेष्ठ प्रदर्शन करने के लिए थी।

रिचर्ड में वे सभी गुण थे जो उन्हें एक सच्चा वैज्ञानिक बनाते थे। उनके पास प्रथम श्रेणी का मस्तिष्क, जिज्ञासा और सभी सही कारणों से जीतने की इच्छा थी ।

Q1. How did a book become a turning point in Richard Ebright's life? रिचर्ड इब्राइट का जीवन एक किताब ने कैसे बदल दिया?

Ans. The book The Travels of Monarch X' became a turning point in Richard Ebright's life as after reading it, he became interested in studying the migration of butterflies. It opened the world of science for Richard.

Q2. How did his mother help him?

उसकी (रिचर्ड की) माँ ने उसकी कैसे सहायता की?

Or How did Ebright's mother help him in becoming a scientist?

वैज्ञानिक बनने में रिचर्ड इब्राइट की माँ ने उसकी कैसे सहायता की?

 Ans. Richard Ebright's mother helped him in becoming a scientist by encouraging his interest in learning. She took him on trips and bought scientific equipments for him. She spent all her time in setting up challenges for him. This helped Richard to learn a lot. She presented him the book The Travels of Monarch X'. The book changed Richard's life forever.

Q3. What lesson does Ebright learn when he does not win anything at a science fair? जब रिचर्ड को एक विज्ञान मेले में कोई पुरस्कार नहीं मिला तो उसने क्या सीख सीखी?

Ans. When he did not win anything at a science fair, Ebright learnt an important lesson that science is not just about display, it is about projects and real experiments. 

Q 4. What experiments and projects does he then undertake?

उसके बाद उसने कौन-से प्रयोग और प्रोजेक्ट प्रारम्भ किए?

 Ans. Richard Ebright undertook many projects and experiments. His first project was to prove that a beetle carries a viral disease that kills monarch caterpillars. Then, he tried to prove that viceroy butterflies copy monarchs. Later, he studied the twelve golden spots on monarch pupa and discovered a new hormone. Also, he found out how cells read their DNA.

Q 5. What are the qualities that go into the making of a scientist? कौन-सी विशेषताएँ या गुण एक वैज्ञानिक को बनाती हैं?

Ans. The three essential qualities that make a scientist are a first-rate mind, the presence of curiosity and the will to do the best and win.

Q 6. How can one become a scientist, an economist, a historian...? Does it simply involve reading many books on the subject? Does it involve observing, thinking and doing experiments? कैसे कोई व्यक्ति एक वैज्ञानिक, एक अर्थशास्त्री, एक इतिहासकार बन सकता है? क्या इसके लिए विषय से सम्बन्धित बहुत सारी पुस्तकें पढ़ना पर्याप्त है? क्या इसके लिए अन्वेक्षण, विचार और प्रयोग करना आवश्यक है?

 Ans. Reading of books is important for becoming a scientist, an economist and a historian. However, it is not enough. Apart from the knowledge gained from books, one must be able think independently.

Yes, one also requires a keen interest in observing. thinking and doing experiments and gain as much practical knowledge as possible to be successful in their fields.

Q 7. You must have read about cells and DNA in your science books. Discuss Richard Ebright's work in the light of what you have studied. If you get an opportunity to work like Richard Ebright on projects and experiments, which field would you like to work on and why? आपने अपनी विज्ञान की पुस्तक में कोशिकाओं तथा डीएनए के बारे में पढ़ा होगा। आपने जो पढ़ा है उसके सन्दर्भ में रिचर्ड इब्राइट के कार्य की विवेचन कीजिए। यदि आपको रिचर्ड इब्राइट की तरह प्रोजेक्ट और प्रयोग कार्य करने  का अवसर मिले तो, आप किस क्षेत्र में कार्य करना चाहेगें और क्यों?

Q 8. Children everywhere wonder about the world around them. The questions they ask are the beginning of scientific inquiry. Given below are some questions that children in India have asked Prof Yash Pal and Dr Rahul Pal as reported in their book, Discovered Questions.

बच्चे अपने आस-पास की दुनिया के बारे में आश्चर्य प्रकट करते हैं। वे जो प्रश्न पूछते हैं वे उनकी वैज्ञानिक जाँच-पड़ताल का प्रारम्भ होता है। नीचे कुछ प्रश्न दिए गए हैं जो प्रो. यश पाल और डॉ. राहुल पाल से भारत के बच्चों द्वारा पूछे गए थे जो उनकी पुस्तक, डिस्कवर्ड क्वेश्चन्स में प्रतिवेदित हैं।

(i) What is DNA fingerprinting ? What are its uses? डीएनए फिंगरप्रिंटिंग क्या है? इसके उपयोग क्या है?

 (ii) How do honeybees identify their own honeycombs?

मधुमक्खियों अपना मधुकोष कैसे पहचानती है?

(iii) Why does rain fall in drops? बारिश बूँदों में क्यों गिरती है ?

Can you answer these questions? You will find Prof Yash Pal's and Dr Rahul's answers.

क्या आप इन प्रश्नों का उत्तर दे सकते हैं? आपको पृष्ठ संख्या 75 पर (डिस्कवर्ड क्वेश्चन्स में दिए गए) डॉ. यश पाल और डॉ. राहुल पाल के जवाब मिल जाएँगे।

Ans.(i) DNA fingerprinting is a forensic technique used to identify individuals by the characteristics of their DNA. It is used in parentage testing. It is also used in

criminal investigation to identify a person. 

(ii) Honeybees have signalling chemicals. They leave trails for fellow honeybees so that they can reach their honeycomb.

(iii) Rain fall in drops as the only solid thing in the air are dust particles. Water vapour uses it as a centre of attraction when it becomes too heavy. Water vapour condenses on the dust particle as a drop and falls on Earth.


Supplementary Reader wat 3 Short Answer Type Questions दिए जाएंगे, जिनमें से किन्हीं 2 के Answer दिए जाने हैं। प्रत्येक प्रश्न के लिए 2 अंक निर्धारित है।

Q1. What rare achievement did Richard manage at the age of twenty-two? बाइस वर्ष की आयु में रिचर्ड ने कौन-सी अद्भुत उपलब्धि प्राप्त की थी?

Ans. Richard had a rare achievement at the age of twenty-two. He wrote an article with his friend about a theory of how cells work. The article was published in the scientific journal 'Proceedings of the National Academy of Science." It was the first time that this journal had ever published the work of college students.

Q2. Richard became a collector at an early age. How? रिचर्ड कम आयु में हो संग्रहकर्ता बन गया था। कैसे?


Where did Richard grow up? How did he spend his time?

रिचर्ड कहाँ पला-बढ़ा था? उसका समय कैसे व्यतीत होता था?

Ans. Richard grew up north of Reading, Pennsylvania.

Richard was the only child of his parents. He had no company at home to play with. So, he started collecting things in his spare time. He would collect coins, fossils, rocks and butterflies as a hobby. In this way, Richard became a collector at an early age.

Q3.Why did Ebright start tagging the butterflies? इब्राइट ने तितलियों पर टैग लगाना क्यों प्रारम्भ किया?

Ans. Ebright's mother gave him a book The Travels of Monarch X. Richard read the whole book, at the last page of the book, readers were invited to help study butterfly migrations.

They were asked to tag butterflies for research by Dr. Fredrick A. Urquhart of the University of Toronto, Canada. So, Ebright started attaching a tag to the wings of Monarchs because he wanted to study monarch butterflies in Toronto University.

Q4. How and why was Ebright raising the flock of Monarch butterflies in the basement of his house? इब्राइट अपने घर के तहखाने में मोनार्च तितलियों के झुण्ड को कैसे और क्यों पाल रहा था?

Ans. The butterfly collecting season around Reading lasts six weeks in summer season. Richard Ebright needed flock of butterflies to attach tag on their wings, so he decided to raise a flock of butterflies in the basement of his house. He caught a female monarch, took her eggs, and raised them through their life cycle, from egg, to caterpillar to pupa to adult butterfly. Then he tagged the butterflies and let them go.

Q5. Why did Ebright lose interest in tagging bufferflies?

रिचर्ड इब्राइट की तितलियों को टैग लगाने में रुचि क्यों खत्म हो गई थी? 

Ans. Richard raised thousands of butterflies, tagged them and released them to study their migration. But soon, he lost interest because only two of his tagged butterflies were recaptured and they had travelled only seventy-five miles.

Q6. Who was Dr. Frederick A. Urquhart? Why did Richard Ebright look to him for fresh ideas? डॉ. फ्रेडरिक ए. उरकुहार्ट कौन थे? रिचर्ड ब्राइट उनसे नए सुझाव क्यों लेना चाहता था?

Ans. Dr. Frederick A. Urquhart was a scientist and teacher at the University of Toronto, Canada. He was doing research on butterfly migrations. Ebright sent him many tagged butterflies for his research work. Richard looked to him for fresh ideas and suggestions because the suggestions sent hy Dr. Urquhart helped in shaping Ebright's career as a scientist.

Q7. When did Ebright get a hint of real science? What was his project? What did he learn there? इब्राइट को वास्तविक विज्ञान का संकेत कब मिला? उसका प्रोजेक्ट क्या था?

उसने वहाँ क्या सीखा? 

Ans. Ebirght got a hint of real science when he was in the seventh grade and participated in a country science fair. He did not get any award. His project was to show slides of frog tissue, which he showed under a microscope.

He learnt that he had to do some real experiments rather than a simple display of his project.

Q8. Which project did Richard undertake in the eighth grade?

आठवीं कक्षा में रिचर्ड ने कौन सा प्रोजेक्ट बनाया था? Ans. In the eighth grade, Richard undertook the project to find the cause of a viral disease that had killed monarch caterpillars. He thought that a beetle might carry the virus, so he rose caterpillars in the presence of beetles. He was not able to prove it but still won a prize for it.

Q9. Why do viceroy butterflies copy the monarch butterflies?

वायसराय तितलियाँ मोनार्च तितलियों की नकल क्यों करती हैं?

Ans. Birds eat viceroy butterflies because they taste good to them, whereas monarch butterflies do not taste good to the birds. So, the viceroys try to copy the monarchs to protect themselves from the birds. 

Q 10. Richard's project on the purpose of the twelve tiny gold spots on a monarch pupa was highly valuable in two ways. List the two ways. रिचर्ड का प्रोजेक्ट मोनार्च के प्यूपा के ऊपर पाए जाने वाले बारह सुनहरे धब्बों के उद्देश्य को जानना दो कारण से बहुत मूल्यवान था। वे दो कारण बताइए।

Ans. Richard's project on the purpose of the twelve tiny gold spots on a monarch pupa was highly valuable in the following two ways

.First, he discovered a hormone that was necessary for the growth of the pupa.

.Secondly, he got a chance to work at a famous laboratory as he won the first prize in the county fair and entry into the International Science and Engineering Fair.

Q11. Mention any two of Ebright's contributions to the world of science. विज्ञान जगत में इब्राइट के किन्हीं दो योगदानों का वर्णन कीजिए।

Ans. The two contributions of Ebright to the world of science were Ebright built a device that showed that the spots on monarch butterflies wings produce a hormone that is necessary for the growth of the butterfly.

His other important contribution was his study of how cells read their DNA.

Q 12. In addition to science, what were the other interests of Richard?

विज्ञान के अतिरिक्त रिचर्ड की अन्य रुचियाँ क्या थी? Ans. Apart from science, Richard was a good debater and a public speaker as well as a canoeist and an outdoor person.

He also loved photography and likes to collect different kinds of things and butterflies.

Q 13. Mr. Weiherer pays a glowing tribute to Richard. What did he say?

श्रीमान बेहरर का रिचर्ड की सफलता में अपूर्व योगदान है। उन्होंने क्या कहा? Or Who was Mr. Weiherer? How did he admire Richard?

श्रीमान बेहरर कौन थे? उन्होंने रिचर्ड की प्रशंसा कैसे की? 

Ans. Mr Weiherer was Ebright's social studies teacher and the advisor to the clubs that Richard Ebright had joined. He praised him for his brilliant mind, his curiosity and a will to win for the right reason. He also admired Richard for his

spirit to do his best all the time.

Q14. Hobbies play a very important role in one's life. Elaborate this with reference to The Making of a Scientist'. रुचियाँ एक व्यक्ति के जीवन में महत्त्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाती हैं। इस वाक्य

का वर्णन 'The Making of a Scientist' के सन्दर्भ में कीजिए।

Ans. It is true that hobbies play a very important role in one's life. It was Richard Ebright's hobbies that led him into the field of science. His hobbies were encouraged by his mother who always motivated him to learn new things. Further, it is because of his hobbies that he became a curious all rounder, always ready to participate in things that he loved to do.


परीक्षा में Supplementary Reader के पाठों से 2 Long Answer Type Questions दिए जाएंगे, जिनमें से किसी 1 का Answer दिया जाना है। प्रश्न के लिए 4 अंक निर्धारित है।

Q1. Richard's mother had a great influence on him. Discuss. रिचर्ड की माँ का उस पर गहरा प्रभाव पड़ा था। चर्चा कीजिए।


Discuss the role of Ebright's mother in making him scientist.

इब्राइट की माँ की उसे वैज्ञानिक बनाने में भूमिका की चर्चा कीजिए।

Ans. Richard's mother played a huge role in making him a great scientist. She would take him on trips to encourage learning. He was a single child. After his father died, his mother made him the focus of her life. She would buy him all kinds of microscopes, telescopes and other equipments. After dinner, she gave him problems to solve. This helped Richard to learn a lot. She was his only companion for a long time. She always

tried to give him work that required no physical labour but those which enhanced his learning skill.

It was his mother who got him the book "The Travels of Monarch X'. This book opened the world of science for Richard. She also wrote to Dr Urquhart to guide her son. The scientist helped Richard and guided him. Thus, his mother shaped him into an extraordinary scientist.

Q2. Richard Ebright displayed a well-rounded personality. Dis you agree? Elucidate in the context of the given text. रिचर्ड बाहर ने एक सर्वागीण (पूर्ण विकसित व्यक्तिको प्रदर्शित क्या आप सहमत है? दिए गए पाठ के सन्दर्भ में वर्णन कीजिए।

Ans. Richard Ebright displayed a well-rounded personality from his childhood. His genius was obvious by the time he was in second grade. He not only collected butterflies but also collected rocks, fossils and coins. He had managed to collect all the twenty-five species of butterflies that were found in his hometown and had classified them..

Science was not his only passion. He was an active member of his school's debating club and Model United Nations Clubs and was also an effective debator and public speaker. He was an enthusiastic canoeist and an all-round outdoor person with a keen interest in photography. Because of his interest and hobbies, it was simple for him to devote time and energy to many other interests. He was a champion, not because of his desire to win but for attempting to do his best. All of these qualities make him a well-rounded personality.

Q3. How did Ebright use determination and preservance to achieve his aim of becoming a scientist? इब्राइट ने कैसे दृढ़ निश्चय और धैर्य के उपयोग से वैज्ञानिक बनने के अपने। लक्ष्य को प्राप्त किया?

Ans. Beginning in the Kindergarten, Ebright collected butterflies with the same determination that marked all his activities. In the second grade, he had collected all 25 species of butterflies found around his hometown. Due to his determination to study butterflies, he raised a flock of butterflies.

During subsequent years, he participated in science fairs, completed a number of research projects and graduated from Harvard with highest honours, second in his class of 1510. Ebright went on to become a graduate student researcher at Harvard Medical School. There he began doing experiments to test his theory how the cell can read the blueprint of its DNA. Thus, his determination and preservance made him a famous scientist.


परीक्षा में Supplementary Reader के पाठों से True False Statements दिए जाएँगे। विद्यार्थियों को अपने उत्तर में केवल True या False लिखना होगा। प्रत्येक प्रश्न के लिए 1 अंक निर्धारित है।

Point out 'true' and 'false' statements in the following. 

Q1. Ebright grew up north of Reading, Pennsylvania. इब्राइट पेनिसिलवेनिया के रीडिंग के उत्तर में पला-बड़ा हुआ। 

Ans. True

Q 2. Ebright also collected rocks, toys and expensive books. इब्राइट पत्थर, खिलौने और मँहगी पुस्तकों का भी संग्रह करता था। 

Ans. False, he also collected rocks, fossils and coins.

Q3. By the time Ebright was in fourth grade, he had collected all twenty-five species of butterflies found his hometown.

जब इब्राइट चौथी कक्षा में था, तब उसने अपने घर के आस-पास मिलने बाली सभी पच्चीस प्रजाति की तितलियों का संग्रह कर लिया था।

Ans. False, by the time he was in second grade.

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